Bonnema & Garcia

The challenge to define architectures and interfacing standards for a European electric mobility service infrastructure


Our European project Electric Mobility as a Service (eMaaS) combines highly innovative technology and new business models to create the conditions for large scale adoption of Electric Vehicles (EV). We can achieve this by enabling the sharing of EVs, thus optimizing their utilization and reducing cost. This combination will make EVs a functional and cost equivalent to Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEV) by replacing individual ownership of vehicles with shared EVs, which are utilized on-demand as a service. “Sharing” will become the underlying principle of enterprise mobility. In addition, we connect EV sharing services to other eco-friendly modes of mobility. Finally, we are working toward finding easily accessible and user-friendly solutions.

In order to collaborate efficiently in an eMaaS ecosystem, architectures and interfacing standards are needed. Systems Engineering and Multidisciplinary Design (SEMD) offers a suite of tools and techniques to support this development. Our presentation will discuss several SEMD approaches that support the development of an eMaaS architecture, for example:

  • A3-architecture – understanding systems of current partners in place from a functional, physical, context and quantification viewpoint
  • User stories – envisaging how different actors would like to interact with the systems
  • Use Cases – envisaging in which scenario’s MaaS services are being deployed
  • Functional Decompositions – Identifying and allocating functions that are required in the system
  • Development Roadmaps – Business Cases mapped to functional decompositions
  • Development of Operational Concepts –  As developed for the Transport Operator and MaaS Provider API (TOMP API)

Roberto Reyes García holds a Bachelor’s degree in Mechatronics, a Master’s degree in Industrial Engineering, both by the Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN) in Mexico, and a Professional Doctorate in Engineering (PDEng) by the University of Twente. Roberto currently works as a Junior Researcher at the Systems Engineering and Multidisciplinary Design (SEMD) group of the University of Twente. His research focuses on data-driven models for the promotion of electric mobility in Europe, and data-driven architectures and business models for the development of electric Mobility as a Service (eMaaS). He also participates in the Transport Operators and MaaS Providers Working Group (TOMP-WG) as the functional architect of the TOMP-API and leader of the Standards & Co-collaboration working team.

G. Maarten Bonnema is an associate professor in Systems Engineering and Multidisciplinary Design at the Department of Design, Production and Management of the Faculty of Engineering Technology at the University of Twente. He has worked as a Systems Engineer at ASML. His research aims at supporting system designers, conceptual design and mechatronic design by improving multidisciplinary communication and systems thinking. An overview of publications can be found at His two main application areas are high-tech systems and electric mobility.

Maarten Bonnema

Associate professor in Systems Engineering at the University of Twente